President's Day Tab 2014

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Presidents
President’s Day February 17, 2014
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Index of Presidents
2 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
GEORGE WASHINGTON
First President of the United States
1789-1797
George Washington, called the “Father of His Country,” was a surveyor, plantation owner, professional soldier and president of the United States. Born on his father’s plantation, he grew up near Fredericksburg, Va., and later at Mt. Vernon, the plantation of his half-brother, Lawrence. There he studied mathematics and became a surveyor. Later, he was an officer in the Virginia militia. At 16, he helped survey Shenandoah lands for Lord Fairfax. Commissioned a lieutenant colonel in 1754, he fought the first skirmishes of what grew into the French and Indian War. He even had two horses shot out from under him during that conflict. After the French and Indian War, Washington managed his lands around Mt. Vernon and served in the Virginia House of Burgesses. Because of his experience in the French and Indian War, Washington was named commander-in-chief of the Continental Army when the Second Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in May 1775. He assumed command of his ill-trained troops on July 3, 1775, at Cambridge, Mass. Washington would lead them six long years before winning the war. After the war, he hoped to retire, but Virginia sent him to the Constitutional Convention, where he was president of that body. When the new Constitution was ratified, the Electoral College unanimously elected Washington the country’s first president. He did not infringe upon the policy-making powers that he felt the Constitution gave Congress, but the determination of foreign policy became predominately a presidential concern. European relations, federal court problems and the like were often solved peaceably only because all factions respected Washington as wise, just and fair. After two terms as president, he retired to Mt. Vernon, only to be recalled to Philadelphia in 1798 when war with France was expected. He devoted time to reorganizing America’s small army. He died of a throat infection Dec. 14, 1799, after he contracted a cold while riding about his estates.
1. George Washington...............................................................................................................2 2. John Adams...........................................................................................................................3 3. Thomas Jefferson..................................................................................................................3 4. James Madison......................................................................................................................4 5. James Monroe.......................................................................................................................4 6. John Quincy Adams..............................................................................................................4 7. Andrew Jackson....................................................................................................................5 8. Martin Van Buren..................................................................................................................6 9. William Henry Harrison. .......................................................................................................6 10. John Tyler............................................................................................................................6 11. James K. Polk. .....................................................................................................................6 12. Zachary Taylor....................................................................................................................7 13. Millard Fillmore..................................................................................................................7 14. Franklin Pierce....................................................................................................................7 15. James Buchanan..................................................................................................................8 16. Abraham Lincoln................................................................................................................8 17. Andrew Johnson..................................................................................................................8 18. Ulysses S. Grant..................................................................................................................9 19. Rutherford B. Hayes...........................................................................................................9 20. James A. Garfield...............................................................................................................10 21. Chester A. Arthur...............................................................................................................10 22& 24. Grover Cleveland....................................................................................................... 11 23. Benjamin Harrison............................................................................................................. 11 25. William McKinley............................................................................................................. 11 26. Theodore Roosevelt...........................................................................................................12 27. William H. Taft..................................................................................................................12 28. Woodrow Wilson. ...............................................................................................................13 29. Warren G. Harding.............................................................................................................13 30. Calvin Coolidge.................................................................................................................13 31. Herbert Hoover..................................................................................................................13 32. Franklin D. Roosevelt........................................................................................................14 33. Harry S. Truman................................................................................................................14 34. Dwight Eisenhower............................................................................................................15 35. John F. Kennedy. ................................................................................................................15 36. Lyndon B. Johnson............................................................................................................16 37. Richard Nixon....................................................................................................................16 38. Gerald Ford........................................................................................................................16 39. Jimmy Carter......................................................................................................................17 40. Ronald Reagan...................................................................................................................17 41. George Bush.......................................................................................................................18 42. Bill Clinton. ........................................................................................................................18 43. George W. Bush.................................................................................................................19 44. Barack Obama....................................................................................................................19
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3 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
JOHN ADAMS
Second President of the United States
1797-1801
John Adams, a prosperous farmer’s son, and was one of the early patriots and President George Washington’s vice president for both of his terms. Adams was born in Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1735. A Harvard-educated lawyer, he became identified with the patriot cause. Adams was a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses. He signed the Declaration of Independence and, during the Revolutionary War, served as a diplomat in France and Holland. He helped negotiate the treaty of peace that gave this country its independence. From 1785 to 1788, he was minister to the Court of St. James. Elected vice president with Washington in 1789 and 1792, he was the choice of the Federalist Party to succeed the first president. Thomas Jefferson, an advocate of democracy, opposed him and was named vice president when Adams became president. At the time, the law gave the offices to the first and second choices of the Electoral College. When Adams became President, the war between the French and British was causing great difficulties for the United States on the high seas, and intense partisanship among factions in the United States. He got Congress to appropriate money to complete three new frigates, to build additional ships and provide for a provisional army. When France saw that Adams and the United States meant business about protecting its interests, France agreed on negotiations that ended the country’s quasi-war with the United States. Near the end of Adams’ term, the capital was moved to the new city of Washington, and Adams became the first president to occupy the White House. Adams disagreed with many plans of his own party, and when Jefferson defeated him for re-election, Adams refused to remain in Washington for the inauguration. The two rivals reconciled in later years. Adams retired to his farm in Quincy to pen his elaborate letters to Jefferson. Adams and Jefferson both died July 4, 1826, exactly 50 years to the day after they signed the Declaration of Independence.
THOMAS JEFFERSON
Third President of the United States
1801-1809
Thomas Jefferson was best known as the author of the Declaration of Independence, but he had a long, successful career as a statesman and politician. He was a lawyer, governor, minister to France, secretary of state, vice president and president. Born in 1743 in Albemarle County, Va., he inherited some 5,000 acres from his father and a high social standing from his mother. He studied at the College of William and Mary and then read law. Jefferson was an eloquent correspondent, but historians note that he was no public speaker. He was a brilliant, young 33-year-old lawyer when he was chosen by the First Continental Congress to draft the Declaration of Independence. He succeeded Patrick Henry as governor of Virginia in 1776 and was sent to France in 1785 to replace Benjamin Franklin as minister to that country. His sympathy for the French Revolution led him into conflict with Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Washington’s first secretary of state. As a reluctant candidate for president in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of beating John Adams. He became vice president, although he was opposed to President Adams’ policies. After four years, the Republican Party won overwhelmingly, but the Electoral College found Aaron Burr tied with Jefferson for president. The U.S. House of Representatives chose Jefferson and then added the 12th Amendment to the Constitution, which required the Electoral College to vote separately for president and vice-president. The country’s third president also negotiated the Louisiana Purchase, which added Missouri and half the Mississippi Valley to the United States. He encouraged the Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific Northwest; started the first national highway; established the Military Academy at West Point; and kept the United States out of the Napoleonic Wars. Jefferson retired to his mountain-top home at Monticello after two terms as president to work on such projects as the establishment of the University of Virginia. He died on July 4, 1826.
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4 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
JAMES MADISON
Fourth President of the United States
1809-1817
James Madison, this country’s fourth president, was one of the youngest of the revolutionary patriots. He was the author of the “Virginian Plan,” which proposed a government of three departments — legislative, executive and judicial — and furnished the basis for the U.S. Constitution as finally adopted. Born in 1751, Madison was brought up in Orange County, Virginia, and attended Princeton University. Elected to the first Congress, he defended and interpreted the Constitution throughout George Washington’s administration. He helped write the Bill of Rights. Out of his leadership, in opposition to Hamilton’s financial proposals, came the development of the Republican or Jeffersonian Party. Jefferson made Madison his secretary of state. Madison was elected president in 1808 and was re-elected in 1812. He took office in the midst of controversies with England, caused by that nation’s blockades of France and the impressment of sailors from American ships when they were of British descent. This, and the British failure to recognize the United States’ naturalization laws, caused Madison to declare war on Britain. The conflict is known as The War of 1812. The United States was not prepared for that war and its forces were severely trounced as the British entered Washington and set fire to the White House and the Capitol. The government fled to Virginia. Then, United States forces began fighting back, and a few notable naval and military victories, climaxed by General Andrew Jackson’s triumph at the Battle of New Orleans, convinced Americans that the War of 1812 was a glorious success, and there was an upsurge of nationalism. Madison completed his second term and retired to his estate at Montpelier in Orange County, Va., to become director of the University of Virginia. During this administration, Madison had seen Louisiana and Indiana become states, and John Marshall rendering his decisions as chief justice, which defined the scope of federal power. Madison died June 28, 1836, and was buried near his home.
JAMES MONROE
Fifth President of the United States
1817-1825
James Monroe became the United States’ fifth president March 4, 1817, after serving in the Virginia Legislature, the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention. Born in Westmoreland County, Va., in 1758, he studied law with Thomas Jefferson after attending the College of William and Mary. Monroe was one of this state’s first senators, was governor of Virginia twice, and was minister to both France and England. He served as President Madison’s secretary of state and later as secretary of war during the War of 1812. He opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it lacked a Bill of Rights. However, Washington, Adams, Jefferson and Madison trusted and promoted him, and few men have served their country longer. He helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase, and when he was president, he bought Florida from Spain for $5 million (with Spanish claims to the Northwest thrown in for good measure). He ran against Madison for president in 1810 and was defeated, but came back in 1816 to be elected. He was re-elected to a second term with all but one vote. Monroe’s terms of office were free from general political strife and were called the “Era of Good Feeling.” Mississippi was admitted to the Union in 1817 and Illinois in 1818. However, when Missouri applied, the slavery question was raised for the first time. Finally, Missouri was admitted as a slave state, after being paired with Maine as a free state, in what was to become known as the Missouri Compromise, which was also to bar slavery north and west of Missouri forever. The Monroe Doctrine came into being in 1823, when the President announced his doctrine saying the United States would consider its safety endangered if European powers had authority in this hemisphere or attempted colonization. Monroe’s presidential years were marked with most of the world at peace and this nation making great strides in business, inventions and western development. President Monroe died on July 4, 1831.
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS
Sixth President of the United States
1825-1829
John Quincy Adams was the first son of a president to serve in this nation’s highest office, and his career and viewpoints were to parallel that of his illustrious father. He was born in Braintree (Quincy), Mass., July 11, 1767, and was educated in Paris, and at Harvard. He was considered a “most travelled man” and a fearless statesman. Washington made him minister to Portugal and then to Prussia. He served in the Massachusetts Legislature and was elected a U.S. senator from his homestate in 1803. He resigned from the Senate in 1808 to teach rhetoric at Harvard. He was minister to Russia under Madison, then minister to England and secretary of state under Monroe. He negotiated the Florida Purchase and helped write the “Monroe Doctrine.” As secretary of state, he was considered the political heir to the presidency, but the old ways of choosing a president were changed in 1824 to allow for selection by a popular choice. In the first election, where election was a personal contest, Andrew Jackson won the most popular and electoral votes of the four candidates in the race, but the House of Representatives chose Adams. Jackson’s following developed into the Democratic Party, largely an outgrowth of the earlier Republican Party of Jefferson. Supporters of John Adams and Henry Clay were known as the Whig Party. Jackson came back in 1828 to ruin Adams’ try for a second term. However, his political career was not over and he was elected to Congress and served nine consecutive terms before dying July 26, 1848, in the Speaker’s Room of the House of Representatives after a stroke. Southern congressmen passed a “gag rule” in 1836 providing that the House automatically table petitions against slavery. Adams tirelessly fought the rule for eight years until finally he obtained its repeal. He was buried — as were his father, mother and wife — at First Parish Church in Quincy.
5 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
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ANDREW JACKSON
Seventh President of the United States
1829-1837
The United States’ seventh president was a product of western pioneering who came to the White House after a career as a soldier and statesman. He was Andrew Jackson. Born March 15, 1767, in the Waxhaw district of New Lancaster County, S.C., Jackson joined the militia at 13. He was captured in the Revolutionary War. Later, he was to read law in Salisbury, N.C., then moved to Nashville, Tenn., where he was a land speculator. He was the first man elected from Tennessee to the House of Representatives, and he served briefly in the U.S. Senate. He was also governor of Tennessee, a Supreme Court judge in Tennessee and the first territorial governor of Florida. Jackson helped draft the Constitution of Tennessee and went to the Senate at the age of 30, only to be made a judge at 31 years of age. State political factions rallied around Jackson and, by 1828, enough had joined “Old Hickory” to win numerous state elections and control of the federal government in Washington. Jackson, as president openly rewarded his supporters with offices and declared that “to the victors belong the spoils,” from which came the term “spoils system.” The system was not new, but the frank admission of it was. When John Calhoun, his vice president, advocated refusal by South Carolina to pay tariff duties and talked secession, Jackson defied his partisan friends and declared he would enforce the law with the army if necessary. Calhoun resigned and was sent to the Senate, where he fought for secession. Only a compromise by Henry Clay, a western Whig, kept it from happening. Jackson’s views won approval from the American electorate and, in 1832, he received more than 56 percent of the popular vote. The Senate made him mad when it refused to confirm his nomination of Martin Van Buren as minister to England. Jackson threatened to “smash them” and got Van Buren to be his vice president. Van Buren succeeded to the presidency when “Old Hickory” retired to the Hermitage, where he died in June 1845.
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6 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
MARTIN VAN BUREN
Eighth President of the United States
1837-1841
The United States’ eighth president, Martin Van Buren, was a small man who came to the White House as an anti-slavery Democrat. Born in Kinderhook, N.Y., December 5, 1782, he was a state senator, attorney general and lawyer in Albany for many years. As a young lawyer, he became involved in New York politics as a leader of the “Albany Regency,” an effective New York political organization. He dispensed public offices and bounty in a fashion calculated to bring votes. Van Buren was elected to the United States Senate in 1821 and emerged as the principal northern leader for Andrew Jackson. The president rewarded him by making him secretary of state and later vice president. Jackson wanted the “Little Magician” to be his minister to Great Britain, but the Whigs in Congress refused to confirm him so Jackson put him on the Jacksonian ticket in 1832 as vice president. He won the presidency in 1836. He was immediately confronted with a financial panic when he assumed his duties as the nation’s president. Van Buren followed the Jackson program and after much trouble with the termination of the United States Bank Charter, set up the independent United States Treasury. This plan was upset for a brief time in the next administration but was revived and has continued ever since. Inclined more and more to oppose the expansion of slavery, Van Buren blocked the annexation of Texas because it assuredly would add to slave territory — and it might bring war with Mexico. Defeated in his 1840 re-election bid by the Whigs, he made another attempt to become president in 1848 but failed. Van Buren then retired from politics and never again held public office. He remained opposed to the extension of slavery and died during the Civil War, before the issue was finally settled. He died July 24, 1862, in Kinderhook.
WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON
Ninth President of the United States
1841-1841
General William Henry Harrison, the hero of frontier days from the Ohio River to the Great Lakes, came to the White House as the oldest man ever elected president up to that time. He died a month after his inauguration. Born February 9, 1773, in Berkeley, Charles City Co., Va., he was educated at Hampden Sydney College, studied medicine under Dr. Benjamin Rush and fought under General Anthony Wayne at Fallen Timber. A pioneer in the Ohio Valley, he became secretary of the Northwest Territory and later its delegate to Congress. “Old Tippecanoe” ran against President Martin Van Buren in 1840 and defeated him. This brave man had been a tough Indian fighter, defeating a band of land-hungry Shawnees at Tippecanoe Creek in Indiana in 1811. The Whigs came up with the “Old Tippecanoe” while trying to cash in on the popularity of Andrew Jackson. Harrison was actually a Virginia-born aristocrat. His father had been a governor of Virginia and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. The Battle of Tippecanoe, upon which Harrison’s fame was to rest, disrupted Tecumseh’s confederacy but failed to diminish Indian raids. Harrison came to Congress in 1816 from Ohio and was later elected to the U.S. Senate. He resigned to be named minister to Columbia. The Whig Party selected Harrison as its presidential candidate in 1840 after a contest with Henry Clay of Kentucky. His election was close in most states, but Harrison won all but a handful of them. After his election, Harrison chose Daniel Webster for secretary of state and prepared to restore the United States Bank, according to the Whig platform. One of his first presidential acts was to call a special session of Congress. He did not live to see it assembled. Harrison’s third son, John Scott Harrison, was in Congress when his father was president, and a grandson was to be the 23rd president. Harrison caught pneumonia during inaugural ceremonies and died April 4, 1841. He was buried in North Bend, Ohio.
JOHN TYLER
Tenth President of the United States
1841-1845
John Tyler was the first vice president to be elevated to the office of president by the death of his predecessor. He became this nation’s 10th president when William Henry Harrison died after serving only 31 days of his term. Harrison, a northern Whig, believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution, but Tyler was a southerner who was a staunch defender of states’ rights and a strict constitutionalist. Born in Greenway, Va., he was a graduate of William and Mary College and had served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates. He got in trouble with the voters of his district while serving in Congress. He had opposed President Jackson and, as a senator, had helped draft the resolution censuring Jackson for his handling of the United States Bank funds. When the Virginia Legislature voted instructions to Tyler to withdraw the censuring vote, Tyler resigned instead. Tyler had served frequently in the legislature, been twice governor of Virginia, chancellor of William and Mary College, a representative and a senator. As vice president, Tyler and Henry Clay had tried to dominate “Old Tippecanoe.” But suddenly president Harrison was dead, and “Tyler, too” was in the White House. Clay tried to keep power in his hands and authored a bill to establish a national bank with branches in several states. Tyler vetoed it on “states” rights grounds and put in his own “exchequer system.” That National Bank Bill was again passed by Congress in amended form and again Tyler vetoed it, upsetting the whole Whig program. The Whigs disowned him and Tyler’s cabinet, except for Daniel Webster, then resigned. The annexation of the Texas Republic to the United States, and the construction of the first telegraph system by Samuel Morse, were two of the major accomplishments of the Tyler administration. Neither party considered renominating him and he retired to his estate in Richmond until 1861, when he came to Washington as president of the Peace Convention. He died January 18, 1862, and was buried in Richmond.
JAMES K. POLK
Eleventh President of the United States
1845-1849
James Knox Polk became the United States’ 11th President March 4, 1845. He was often referred to as the first “dark horse” candidate, and he was the last of the Jacksonians to sit in the White House. The Democratic Convention of 1844 required its presidential candidate to get two-thirds of the delegate vote. Former president Martin Van Buren expected and almost won the party support. When he could not get the necessary votes, the convention swung to Polk, who had been a Tennessee legislator, congressman and governor. Polk was born November 2, 1795, in Mecklenburg County, N.C. He was a graduate of the University of North Carolina. He was speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives when Texas was admitted to the Union. Soon after taking office, Polk sent troops to the Texas-Mexican border, which was in dispute and clashes there led to war. He declared war on Mexico in 1846 and the U.S. Army fought all the way to Mexico City before the Mexican government agreed to a peace treaty that gave the United States California and the area then called New Mexico including Arizona and parts of Colorado and Nevada for $15 million. A few months later, the Oregon boundary was agreed to and the march to the Pacific was complete. It was not long before gold was discovered in California and the migration west really started. Texas, Iowa and Wisconsin were added to the Union in 1846 and 1848. Polk, a dour-faced Presbyterian, was extremely formal but had a real knack for hard work. In his four years as president, his hair completely grayed and his originally pink complexion became sallow as lines in his face deepened considerably. He had served a most successful presidency, but it appeared that Polk’s uncompromising zeal for work had broken his health. He died January 15, 1849, in Nashville, Tenn., just three months after he retired as president.
7 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
ZACHARY TAYLOR
T welfth President of the United States
1849-1850
Zachary Taylor, the nation’s 12th president, was one of only two Whigs to be elected to serve in the White House. Like Harrison, the only other Whig to hold office, Taylor was a soldier. He was also a farmer. Born in Orange County, Va., November 24, 1784, he was taken to the “new frontier,” where he grew up in a remote section of Kentucky. An Indian fighter with a very limited education, Taylor had no knowledge of politics when he was elected. The Mexican War made Zachary Taylor a hero after President Polk sent him to Texas to hold the shores of the Rio Grande River. Taylor held them but war resulted and, with inferior numbers, “old Rough and Ready” won battle after battle and virtually ended the war with major victories at Monterey and Buena Vista against Santa Ana. However, President Polk was disturbed by General Taylor’s informal habits of command and his Whig Party leanings and kept him in northern Mexico while sending General Winfield Scott to capture Mexico City. He fought in the Seminole War and while “down south,” acquired a plantation in Louisiana. He was nominated for the presidency by the Whig Party in 1848, just at the close of the victorious war. His popularity, coupled with the break of Martin Van Buren with the Democrats to run as Free Soil candidate, helped carry the election. Taylor tried to run his administration in the same rule-of-thumb fashion that he had fought Indians. He wanted people to determine their own destinies. He urged settlers in New Mexico and California to draft constitutions and apply for statehood. This upset southern leaders, who knew each would come in opposed to slavery. Taylor told the southern leaders who threatened secession that he would enforce the laws even if he had to personally lead the Army. A compromise was finally worked out that stopped secession for the time. After 16 months in office, Taylor fell ill after participating in ceremonies at the Washington Monument and within five days he was dead. He was buried near Louisville, Ky.
MILLARD FILLMORE
Thirteenth President of the United States
1850-1853
Millard Fillmore went from a log cabin to the White House to become the United States’ 13th president. He was born on a farm in Cayuga County, N.Y. He apprenticed to a tailor because of his limited education and later became a teacher and postmaster in Buffalo, N.Y., after buying out his apprenticeship for $30. Many details of his career were lost to history when all his private papers were burned by his son. He was the perfect vice presidential candidate to run with Zachary Taylor because he was calm and well-dressed, while Taylor was fiery and a “little careless” with his dress. Taylor died after 16 months in office and Fillmore became the “accidental president.” Fillmore presided over the Senate during the months of the nerve-wracking debates over the Compromise of 1850. When he became president, Taylor’s cabinet resigned and he appointed Daniel Webster his secretary of state, thus siding with the Whigs who favored the Compromise. Clay left Washington a short time later, leaving his leadership role to Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, who presented five bills to the Senate: 1) admit California as a free state; 2) settle the Texas boundary and compensate the state; 3) grant territorial status to New Mexico; 4) place federal officers at the disposal of slaveholders seeking fugitives; and 5) abolish the slave trade in the District of Columbia. Fillmore signed them all into law. He sought renomination by the Whigs in 1852 but was defeated by General Winfield Scott. Four years later, he became the nominee of the American party called the “Know Nothings,” and made a lively campaign but won only the electoral vote of Maryland. He resumed the practice of law at Buffalo, taking little part in the Civil War. He died in Buffalo of old age in 1874.
FRANKLIN PIERCE
Fourteenth President of the United States
1853-1857
Franklin Pierce, this nation’s 14th president, took over the White House at a time of apparent tranquility because of the Compromise of 1850, which seemed to have stemmed the tide of sectionalism. He was born November 23, 1804, in Hillsboro, N.H. He graduated from Bowdoin College and served in the New Hampshire House and in Congress. The son of a Revolutionary hero, General Benjamin Pierce, he was a classmate of writers Nathaniel Hawthorne and William Longfellow. After service in both Houses of Congress, he retired from office and refused nominations for senator and governor and declined President Polk’s offer to name him attorney general. While serving in the U.S. Senate, he was the youngest senator of his day. When the Mexican War broke out, Pierce enlisted as a private and did such a good job he came out a brigadier general. At Contreras, his horse was shot out from under him and he was badly wounded. Pierce was a compromise candidate in the 1852 Democratic convention, which nominated him on the 35th ballot. Two months before he took office, his 11-year-old son was killed in a train wreck and Pierce entered the presidency nervously exhausted. Pierce approved Stephen A. Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska bill, which allowed these territories to decide for themselves about slavery and repealed the “Missouri Compromise.” This brought about more strife and while secession did not come during his administration, Kansas was scarcely ever peaceful again for 10 years. During the Pierce administration, Commodore Matthew C. Perry visited Japan and made the United States’ first treaty with that empire. The Gadsden Purchase settled our Mexican boundary. His accomplishments pleased neither the North nor the South, and he was not renominated. Jefferson Davis had been his secretary of war. He travelled extensively in Europe in later years and he died October 8, 1869 at Concord, N.H., of stomach trouble. Pierce was buried in old North Cemetery in Concord.
Abigail Fillmore
Abigail Fillmore was a bona fide public figure of her day. She received her first mention in the press a mere nine days after President Taylor’s death. She is credited with the creation of the White House library, though there is no documentation to justify giving complete credit to her. She was shocked to arrive at the White House and find it without reference materials of any sort and President Fillmore, after being rejected once, did finally get approval for this library. There is only speculation as to her influence on the President but he was quoted by a friend as saying he “never took any important step without her counsel and advice” and she was called “remarkably well informed” by a reporter on political issues.
8 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
JAMES BUCHANAN
Fifteenth President of the United States
1857-1861
James Buchanan, this nation’s 15th president, was criticized as no other president had been because near the close of his administration, the southern states seceded from the Union. Buchanan, who was born April 23, 1791, near Mercersburg, Pa., had served long in the U.S. Senate and House and had been minister to Russia and England and secretary of state under President Polk. He was elected five times to the House and after service as minister to Russia, served a decade in the Senate. Buchanan presided over a nation that was being split apart by the slavery question: His own party disintegrated into sections; a vigorous new Republican Party rose; the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott decision upheld slavery; Kansas rejected statehood until the territory could have it without slavery; Minnesota and Oregon came in as free states; the South encouraged filibusters who promised to annex Cuba as a slave state; and John Brown staged his raid at Harper’s Ferry. Buchanan sought compromise, but to no avail. When Republicans won a plurality in the House in 1858, every significant bill they passed fell before southern votes in the Senate or a presidential veto. The federal government came to a standstill. Then came the elections of 1860. The North united behind Abraham Lincoln and won against a divided opposition. It was the signal for secession which the South had threatened for many years. President Buchanan said Southern states did not have the right to secede, but also said the federal government could not legally prevent them from doing it. In the end, South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia and the rest of the states that were to make up the Confederacy voted to withdraw from the Union. Buchanan took no active role in politics after he left office and he died January 1, 1868, of rheumatic gout at Wheatland near Lancaster, Pa.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
Sixteenth President of the United States
1861-1865
Abraham Lincoln, the backwoodsman from Illinois, came to the presidency during the “years of crisis” and the Civil War. He had served six years as a state legislator and two years in Congress but was known mostly for his debates with Stephen A. Douglas. He was born in a log cabin in Harden County, Ky., but moved to Illinois, where he was admitted to the bar and became a partner in a Springfield law firm. He declined a U.S. House seat to run for the Senate, but lost that race to Douglas. Lincoln was elected president with only 40 percent of the popular vote but an electoral majority. His first duties were to prepare for war. He called for volunteers April 15, 1861, and July 21, Bull Run was fought. He was a Republican and his years in office were to do much to solidify that party’s image as he rallied most of the northern Democrats to the Union cause. He saw victory and defeat as the North and South struggled in a great Civil War. Through it all, he stood firm on the need for the people to be united as one nation. Lincoln issued his famous Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. It declared that the slaves in the Confederacy were forever free. Lincoln won re-election in 1864 as the Union Army moved against a Confederate Army that was growing increasingly weaker as a result of an effective Union blockade that limited supplies coming to the largely rural contingency. The President’s Gettysburg Address showed that he had high hopes of reuniting the nation when he said “this nation under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the Earth.” With the ending of the Civil War, Lincoln had high hopes of pulling a divided nation back together again “with malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness to the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds.” This was not to be, for on April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre in Washington by John Wilkes Booth. He was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Ill.
ANDREW JOHNSON
17th President of the United States
1865-1869
Andrew Johnson, president Lincoln’s vice president, was to become the nation’s new chief executive when John Wilkes Booth fired his fatal shot at Lincoln. Born December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, N.C., Johnson had been mayor of Greenville, Tenn., state representative and senator, member of Congress and governor of Tennessee. He believed in states’ rights on the slavery question but considered secession unnecessary and argued against it. When Tennessee seceded, he went home from the Senate. His life was threatened, but he stood for the Union and, in 1862, Lincoln appointed him military governor of his state. Johnson was selected as a candidate for vice president at the convention of the Union Party, which was a coalition of Republicans and War Democrats. A month after Lincoln’s second inauguration, Johnson became president. Johnson tried to follow Lincoln’s moderate reconstruction plan. He ran into stiff opposition from Congress and vetoed bill after bill while Congress passed them over the vetos and devised acts to limit his power. General Stanton demanded military districts and control throughout the South. Johnson was having no part of this plan and removed Stanton and replaced him with Ulysses Grant. Congress denied the right of the president to remove a cabinet member and the impeachment of Johnson followed. The Senate voted 35 to 19 against him, one short of the two-thirds needed to convict. Johnson seemed to be able to bounce back and had some hope of being nominated for the presidency in 1868. However, neither party would have anything to do with him and he left office after completing Lincoln’s unexpired term.
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He still had a lot of power with Tennesseeans, and they elected him to the Senate in 1875. It is said that he received a standing ovation when he came into the chamber to claim his seat. He died a few months later of paralysis and was buried at Greenville, Tenn.
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9 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
ULYSSES S. GRANT
18th President of the United States
1869-1877
Ulysses Simpson Grant, a commander of the Union Army during the Civil War, became the 18th President of the United States. He quarreled with president Andrew Johnson and became the Radical Republicans’ candidate in 1868. Born April 27, 1822, at Point Pleasant, Ohio, Grant graduated from West Point in 1843 and was sent to the Mexican border, where he distinguished himself and was twice promoted for bravery at Molino Del Rey and at Chapultepec. He was stationed in Oregon and California for a time before resigning from the Army. However, Grant was back in the Army when the Civil War broke out, and the governor of Illinois appointed him to command an unruly volunteer regiment. He easily got his regiment in fighting shape and in no time had obtained the rank of brigadier general of volunteers. He fought in Missouri and Kentucky before leading battles that resulted in the capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, where he enunciated his term for “unconditional surrender.” In 1863, he took Vicksburg and Chattanooga, received the thanks of Congress and promotion to lieutenant general and commander of the northern forces. During the next two years, he fought with Lee at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor and Petersburg, took Richmond and forced Lee’s surrender at Appomattox. He tried to run the president’s office as he did his army office. He even brought part of his staff to the White House. Grant accepted handsome presents from admirers and two of them, Jay Gould and James Fisk, almost got him and the country into a lot of trouble. They tried to corner the market in gold, but president Grant ordered the secretary of the treasury to sell enough gold to wreck their plans. Grant was re-elected in 1872, and the general’s friends in the Republican Party came to be known proudly as “the Old Guard.” After retiring from the presidency, Grant toured the world and almost won renomination in 1880. He suffered business failures and turned to writing to restore his fortune and support his family. He died July 23, 1885, of throat cancer. He was buried in a magnificent tomb on Riverside Drive in New York City.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES
19th President of the United States
1877-1881
Rutherford B. Hayes was elected the country’s 19th president in the most fiercely disputed election in American history. Born October 4, 1822, in Delaware, Ohio, Hayes was a graduate of Kenyon College and Harvard Law School. Before becoming president, Hayes had been city solicitor of Cincinnati, a general in the Union Army, a congressman and governor of Ohio. The 1876 election found Samuel J. Tilden, the Democratic candidate, with 184 electoral votes and Hayes, the Republican candidate, with 185 votes. There were four contested states -ó South Carolina, Louisiana, Florida and Oregon. The House of Representatives could not reach a decision and a law was passed creating a commission of five representatives, five senators and five Supreme Court judges to settle the contest. This group included eight Republicans and seven Democrats, and they decided every contest for Hayes by a vote of eight to seven, and he won by the margin of one electoral vote. Hayes withdrew troops from many southern states while pledging protection of the rights of blacks in the South. This made liberal Republicans mad with him. President Hayes and his wife Lucy ran the White House in a “homey” fashion, with Hayes often seen wearing rumpled clothes. He was even known to wake visiting dignitaries by knocking on their bedroom doors. Lucy Hayes carried out her husband’s orders to banish wines and liquors from the White House. Serious railroad strikes in 1877 disturbed the nation and the first silver bill was passed. Silver dollars were created while Hayes was president. The president accomplished many of his goals by applying himself patiently. Hayes had announced in advance that he would serve only one term and retired to Spiegel Grove, his home in Fremont, Ohio, in 1881. He died January 17, 1893, of heart disease and was buried at Fremont.
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10 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
JAMES A. GARFIELD
20th President of the United States
1881-1881
James A. Garfield, the nation’s 20th President, was born in a log cabin and worked himself up to the highest office in the land, only to serve a little over six months. He was born November 19, 1831, at Orange, Ohio. Garfield worked for his education and got it bit by bit while serving as a teacher and a lawyer. Even while serving in Congress, he continued to be a student of finance and banking. Garfield was a Civil War soldier who impressed president Abraham Lincoln so much when Garfield brought dispatches from the western front to the White House. The President persuaded him to resign from the army and run for Congress. He won and was instrumental in the passage of the draft act and other war measures. He was a Republican leader in the House when the 1880 Republican convention came around. He favored John Sherman for president against former President Grant and James G. Blaine. Garfield was the compromise candidate and, at first, he refused because of his support of Sherman. Garfield defeated the Democratic nominee, General Winfield Scott Hancock, by a scant 10,000 vote margin. Garfield was on his way to his beloved alma mater, Williams College in Massachusetts, with only one policeman as a body guard when Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker, shot the president in the waiting room of the Washington train station. He did not die immediately but was ill for more than two months while doctors tried to locate the bullet in his body. Their futile probing created blood poisoning from which president Garfield finally died. At one point, Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, tried unsuccessfully to find the bullet with an induction balance electrical device he had designed. He died September 19, 1881, at Elberon, N.J., where he had been sent to recover. He was buried in Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland, Ohio.
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CHESTER A. ARTHUR
21st President of the United States
1881-1885
Chester Alan Arthur seemed to grow into his job when he assumed the presidency after the death of James A. Garfield, who was in office only six months. He was born October 5, 1830, in Fairfield, Vermont, and educated at Union College. He taught school at Pownall, Vermont, and studied law in New York. As a lawyer, Arthur was responsible for a ruling in 1855 that said blacks were to be treated the same as whites on street cars. Early in the Civil War, he helped organize the New York State Militia and was made inspector general and quartermaster general. He was later appointed collector of the Port of New York, a much sought political prize. President Hayes ordered him removed because of corruption in the department, but Arthur refused, saying he was not responsible for the corruption. Hayes then had him removed. Arthur was a leader of the “Stalwart” wing of the Republican Party and was nominated as the 1880 vice presidential candidate to satisfy that wing of the party. Six months later, he would be president. The new president had the White House entirely renovated and he even installed tiled bathrooms, which was the talk of Washington. Although very partisan before he became president, Arthur sought to avoid partisan conflicts in the White House over patronage, and even party won action for civil service reforms. The first Chinese Exclusion Act and the Anti-Polygamy Bill were passed during his term in office, as were new protective tariffs. Arthur’s party was weakened by internal strife. His secretary of the treasury, Charles J. Folger, was beaten for governor of New York by Grover Cleveland. As well, James G. Blaine resigned as secretary of state and won the Republican nomination in 1884 over his former boss. President Arthur retired to New York after his term ended and he died November 18, 1886, of Bright’s disease at the age of 56. He was buried in Rural Cemetery in Albany, N.Y.
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11 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
GROVER CLEVELAND
22nd & 24th President of the United States
1885-1889 • 1893-1897
Grover Cleveland is the only president who was elected to two, non-consecutive terms. He was the nation’s 22nd and 24th President. Cleveland was born March 18, 1837, at Caldwell, N.J. He was admitted to the bar in Buffalo, N.Y. and became assistant district attorney in 1863 and sheriff in 1869. He was elected New York governor in 1882, just two years before winning the presidency. As sheriff of Erie County, N.Y., he personally hanged a murderer, saying that he wouldn’t give that unpleasant task to a deputy. Cleveland married a 21-year-old woman, Frances Folsom, about midway through his first term in office. In his first term, he vetoed many bills, especially pension acts, and improved the civil service while his partisans clamored for the spoils of office. He opposed silver coinage and, after one term, was defeated by Benjamin Harrison, who passed the Sherman Silver Bill and the McKinley Tariff. In 1892, Cleveland did not want the presidential nomination, and the Tammany organization and New York opposed him, but he was nominated and elected by popular demand to a second term. Cleveland faced acute depression when he returned to office. He blamed it on Harrison’s silver bill and had it repealed. Then he sold bonds to maintain the gold standard. President Cleveland fell out with the Illinois governor when he sent troops to Chicago, against the state’s will, to crush a railroad strike and protect the mail. He also forced Britain to accept arbitration of the boundary dispute between Venezuela and British Guyana. He retired to Princeton, N.J., after leaving the White House. His party convention in 1896 refused to praise his administration, but eight years later, his name was cheered in the convention of both parties. Cleveland died January 24, 1908, of debility and old age. He was buried at Princeton.
BENJAMIN HARRISON
23rd President of the United States
1889-1893
President Benjamin Harrison was the grandson of the nation’s ninth President, William Henry Harrison. He was nominated on the eighth ballot at the Republican Convention of 1888, and his supporters said he was big enough to wear the hat of his grandfather, “Old Tippecanoe,” although he was only 5 1/2 feet tall. Born August 20, 1833, at North Bend, Ohio, Harrison was a graduate of Miami University and had been a general in the Union Army. He practiced law in Indianapolis and became a colonel of the 70th Volunteer Indiana Infantry at the start of the Civil War. He became a brigadier general in 1865. He was defeated in his efforts to gain the governorship of his state, but the voters elected him to a term in the U.S. Senate. Harrison adopted a “front-porch” campaign for his 1888 election, which was just the opposite of his grandfather’s rousing campaign with torchlight parades, picnics and carnival atmosphere. Benjamin Harrison was content to sit on his front porch and make short speeches to delegations that visited him in Indianapolis. Grover Cleveland, his Democrat opponent, won the popular vote count but not the electoral vote. The McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Anti-Trust Bill were enacted in 1890, as was the Sherman Silver Bill. The Sherman Bill was repealed when Cleveland regained the office in 1894. The Navy got a helping hand from president Harrison as he got Congress to appropriate funds for expansion and for subsidies for steamship lines. The appropriations were included in the first peacetime “billion-dollar” money bill, which caused House Speaker Thomas to tell critics that, “This is a billion-dollar country.” He was defeated in his try for a second term, but represented Venezuela in arbitration with England in Paris. He died March 13, 1901, of pneumonia, at the age of 67. He was buried in Crown Hill Cemetery in Indianapolis.
WILLIAM MCKINLEY
25th President of the United States
1897-1901
William McKinley, this nation’s 25th President, was a strong advocate of the gold standard and was elected on a “sound money” platform. Born January 29, 1843, at Niles, Ohio, McKinley enlisted in the Civil War and rose to the rank of major. At the end of the war, he opened a law office in Canton, Ohio. He served 15 years in the U.S. House of Representatives and was twice governor of his home state. McKinley used his wealthy Republican friends and their fear of William Jennings Bryan’s silver coinage policy to win the presidency by the largest majority of popular vote since 1872. He met delegations on his front porch in Canton to do all his campaigning. Bryan, a brilliant orator, had swung the Democrats to a silver coinage policy that was to cost him and his party the presidential election three times. The country was in the last days of the depression of 1893 when McKinley occupied the White House. But he was to have troubles in other quarters. That trouble came from Spain in a controversy over that country’s treatment of Cuban revolutionists. Flamed by newspaper accounts of the treatment of these revolutionists, and being unable to restrain Congress or the American people, McKinley delivered his message of neutral intervention in April 1898. Congress quickly passed three measures that were tantamount to a declaration of war for the liberation and independence of Cuba. “Remember the Maine” became the battle cry for the 100-day war after the battleship Maine, stationed at Havana to watch developments, was blown up with great loss of life. The U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet outside Santiago Harbor in Cuba, seized Manila in the Philippines and occupied Puerto Rico. A young New Yorker, Theodore Roosevelt, and his “Rough Riders” played an important part in that war. McKinley was re-elected president in 1900 with Roosevelt as his vice-president. The president had been in office not quite six months when he was shot twice by an anarchist named Leon Czolgosz while attending the PanAmerican Exposition in Buffalo, N.Y. He died eight days later and was buried in Canton after lying in state in Washington.
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12 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
THEODORE ROOSEVELT
26th President of the United States
1901-1909
Theodore Roosevelt, the “Rough Rider,” was one of the youngest men ever to reach the presidential office. He took over the White House when he was only 42. Roosevelt, born October 27, 1858, in New York City, was to become the country’s most active president in many years as he vigorously fought trusts and monopolies and pushed for construction of the Panama Canal in Central America. He had graduated from Harvard, sat in the New York State Assembly, been New York City’s police commissioner and assistant secretary of the Navy before organizing his U.S. Volunteer Cavalry (Rough Riders) as a lieutenant colonel. Roosevelt was New York’s governor when he was drafted as McKinley’s vice president. Under his strong leadership, Congress was to pass the first bill to irrigate the desert lands of the west, create a new Department of Commerce and Labor and establish the Interstate Commerce Commission to fix railroad rates. The Alaskan Boundary was settled and Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for mediating the Russo-Japanese War peace. Roosevelt led the United States more actively into world politics as he quoted a favorite proverb, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” President Roosevelt, who was an active hunter, horseman and tennis player, also did much for conservation. He added to the country’s national forests and reserved lands for public use. He was easily re-elected in 1904 and practically chose his successor, William Howard Taft, but disagreed with him during his term. He travelled extensively in Africa and South America after he left office. Roosevelt got restless and unsuccessfully tried to recapture the presidency again in 1912 on a Progressive ticket that was often referred to as the “Bull Moose” ticket because Roosevelt said he felt as fit as a bull moose. The former president supported the First World War in an unofficial way and died January 6, 1919, of inflammatory rheumatism at his home in Oyster Bay. He was buried there.
WILLIAM H. TAFT
27th President of the United States
1909-1913
William Howard Taft was this country’s “reluctant” president. He had never wanted to be president, but when president Theodore Roosevelt decided that his conscientious secretary of war, was to be his successor, he couldn’t argue with his commander-in-chief. Born September 15, 1857, in Cincinnati, Taft graduated from Yale and the Cincinnati Law School. He became a law reporter for Cincinnati newspapers and was an assistant prosecuting attorney and assistant county solicitor. He was a Superior Court judge, a federal judge, U.S. solicitor general, first civil governor of the Philippines, provisional governor of Cuba and secretary of war before he became president at Roosevelt’s insistence. Early in his administration, Taft called a special session of Congress to revise the tariff downward. But Congress had other ideas and it passed the Payne-Aldrich Act, which revised tariffs upward. Taft’s action in connection with this act alienated many liberal Republicans, who later formed the Progressive Party. Taft was faced with a growing split between the conservative and radical members of this party. That split was further aggravated by the question of preserving or selling public lands. The “Insurgents” combined with the Democrats to upset Republican control of Congress, with the passage of constitutional amendments calling for the levy of an income tax and direct election of senators. A postal savings bill was passed and a trade bill with Canada was enacted, but that country rejected it. Through it all, Taft was unhappy. He comforted himself through his tribulations by engaging in his favorite pastime - eating. Taft rarely exercised his 330-pound bulk and often caused embarrassment for his supporters by falling asleep almost anywhere. In 1912, the Republicans nominated Taft and Teddy Roosevelt bolted from the party to lead the Progressives. With the Republican split, Democrat Woodrow Wilson was easily elected president. Taft wasn’t too unhappy about his loss. He became professor of constitutional law at Yale and was chief justice of the United States from 1921 to 1930. He died March 8, 1930, of arteriosclerosis in Washington, D.C. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
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13 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
WOODROW WILSON
28th President of the United States
1913-1921
Woodrow Wilson, the nation’s 28th president, came to the White House after 25 years of teaching and two years as New Jersey’s governor. He was born December 28, 1856, at Staunton, Va., and educated at Princeton. Wilson received a doctorate from Johns Hopkins in 1886 and was president of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910. Wilson was considered a conservative young political science professor and university president who could be elected president of the United States. First, he was persuaded to run for governor of New Jersey, and, after he won, his administration was marked with important reforms. President Wilson is best remembered for his declaration of war, which put the United States into the First World War, and for his futile fight to get this country to accept and participate in the League of Nations after the war. However, during his term, Congress reformed tariff laws and enacted the Federal Reserve Law, which reorganized the whole financial structure of the nation. Wilson tried to remain neutral when war broke out in Europe. This neutrality was maintained until after Wilson was re-elected in 1916 in a very close contest with former Supreme Court Justice Charles E. Hughes. German attacks on U.S. shipping finally forced this country into war. Wilson didn’t want war, but became convinced that it was a “war to end all wars.” U.S. troops were sent to Europe and the war was soon over, but Wilson was to begin his greatest and most frustrating fight - to get the United States to join the League of Nations, which was included in the peace treaty that Wilson saw written as he went to Paris in person for the peace conference. Congress, now dominated by Republicans, refused to ratify the Versailles Treaty by seven votes. Wilson went west on a speaking tour, seeking popular support for the treaty. He was stricken with paralysis and came back to the White House as an invalid. His remaining months in office were conducted from his wheelchair. He died February 3, 1924, of heart disease at the age of 67. He was buried in the National Cathedral in Washington.
WARREN G. HARDING
29th President of the United States
1921-1923
Warren G. Harding was a compromise candidate who was elected president by the largest majority ever at that time. His supporters thought he was a supporter of the League of Nations, but the new president believed his election was a mandate to stay out of the League. Harding was born in Blooming Grove, Ohio, on November 2, 1865. He attended Ohio Central College and worked on the Star newspaper in Marion, Ohio, before buying it and becoming publisher. He also served as a state senator, lieutenant governor and U.S. senator for one term before becoming president. Harding was a Republican through and through, and it was easy for his supporters in Congress to get their bills signed into law. They eliminated wartime controls and slashed taxes, established a federal budget system, restored high protective tariffs and imposed tight limitations on immigration. A conference in Washington resulted in the adoption of a plan by secretary of state Charles Evans Hughes to limit the arms race between countries around the world. The president made a trip to the Territory of Alaska during the summer of 1923, making numerous speeches along the way as he became the first United States president to set foot on Canadian soil. Upon his return to this country, he became ill in San Francisco. He died there while scandal was brewing in his administration. A special train brought his body back to Washington, where he would lie in state. Thousands of silent citizens watched the special train pass their towns. Secretary of commerce Herbert Hoover, a personal friend, had accompanied the president on his westward trip. Hoover would become the nation’s 31st president. Harding was buried in Marion, Ohio.
CALVIN COOLIDGE
30th President of the United States
1923-1929
Calvin Coolidge, a silent Vermont Yankee, became president August 3, 1923, when Warren Harding died in San Francisco. “Silent Cal” was given the oath of office by his father, a notary public, as he stood before a kerosene lamp with his hand on the family Bible. Coolidge was born July 4, 1872, in Plymouth, Vermont. He graduated from Amherst and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in Northampton, where he was later to be mayor. He served as a state senator and president of the state senate, lieutenant governor and governor for that state. Coolidge was an isolationist who pushed for a policy of rigid economy in government operations and reduction in taxes. He vetoed soldiers’ bonus and pension bills and other measures involving large expenditures. However, toward the close of his term, he got approval of funds for Mississippi River flood control and construction of the Boulder Canyon Dam on the Colorado River. He became very popular and was re-elected in 1924 with 54 percent of the vote as he ran against Democrat John W. Davis and Progressive Socialist Party senator Robert La Follette. Coolidge, who was known for his dry wit and frugality of words, helped greatly to get a treaty among all nations to forego war as an instrument of national policy. Relations with Latin America were improved by conferences and treaties. President Coolidge firmly declined to be nominated by his party for a second term in 1928, and while vacationing in the Black Hills of South Dakota, issued his most famous statement: “I do not choose to run for President in 1928.” By the time the Great Depression hit the country, Coolidge was in retirement. He died January 5, 1933, at his home in Northampton, Mass., of a heart attack. He was buried on a Plymouth, Vt., hillside.
HERBERT HOOVER
31st President of the United States
1929-1933
Herbert Clark Hoover, who had been Warren Harding’s secretary of commerce, brought to the presidency an unparalleled reputation of public service as an engineer, administrator and humanitarian. He was born August 10, 1874, at West Branch, Iowa. He received a bachelor’s degree at Stanford and became a mining engineer. In 1900, Hoover directed food relief for victims of the Boxer Rebellion while chief engineer of the imperial mines in China. Hoover was in England when the First World War broke out, and it was mainly through his efforts that aid was given to wardevastated Belgium. President Wilson appointed him United States food administrator when this country entered the war. Later, he organized food relief projects in Europe. Recognized as a world leader, Hoover easily defeated Governor Alfred E. Smith of New York, the Democratic choice, in an election that saw the largest total vote up to that time. He was not to remain popular long because in the financial fall of 1929, when the spiralling stock market suddenly faltered, the United States found itself in the Great Depression. Hoover became the “scapegoat” for the Depression, even though he worked as much as 21 hours a day to try to get the country on the road to recovery. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Federal Home Loan Bank were set up, and the Farm Loan Bank was expanded in an effort to stem the Depression. But things only got worse. Although Hoover kept saying that people must not suffer from hunger and cold, he also felt caring for them must be primarily a local and voluntary responsibility. Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt was to sweep in the office as voters looked for a new president to lead them out of the Depression. Hoover lived a long time after he left office, and it was not until 1947, when president Harry Truman called him out of retirement, that he got involved in government again. This time, it was coordinator of a European food program. He also became chairman of the Commission on organization of the Executive Branch of Government, better known as the Hoover Commission. The former president died October 20, 1964, after a lengthy illness. He was buried at West Branch, Iowa.
14 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
32nd President of the United States
1933-1945
Franklin Delano Roosevelt became president March 4, 1933, to lead his country out of the Great Depression and through the Second World War. Born January 30, 1882, in Hyde Park, N.Y., Roosevelt attended Harvard University and Columbia Law School. He entered public life in 1910 as a member of the New York Senate. Over the years, he became assistant secretary of the Navy under Woodrow Wilson and was the Democratic nominee for vice president in 1920 with James M. Cox of Ohio. He was governor of New York for two terms before being elected president by the largest vote, popular and electoral, ever recorded in a presidential election. Roosevelt was to win re-election by an even larger majority. There was great unemployment in the country as Roosevelt took the office and started his first “Hundred Days,” which were to see Congress enact sweeping programs to bring recovery to business and agriculture and, in the process, ease unemployment. It was during this time that the Tennessee Valley Authority was established to bring development to Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and Kentucky. The people liked what Roosevelt was doing, but businessmen and bankers were turning against his New Deal program. This did not deter the president, who called for new programs of reform. These took the form of social security, heavier taxes on the wealthy, new controls over banks and public utilities and work programs for the unemployed. He was overwhelmingly re-elected in 1936 and became the first president to be inaugurated under the 20th Amendment, and the first to be elected to a third term in 1940. This term marked the United States’ entry into the Second World War after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941. He directed the organization of the nation’s manpower and resources for global war and kept the morale of the country high with his “fireside chats.” He was re-elected to an unprecedented fourth term in 1944, with Harry S. Truman as his vice president. He conferred at Yalta in the Crimea with Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin concerning the progress of the war. But Roosevelt was never to see peace restored. He died April 12, 1945, while visiting Warm Springs, Ga. His body was brought back to Washington to lie in state before he was buried in Hyde Park.
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HARRY S. TRUMAN
33rd President of the United States
1945-1953
Harry S. Truman, an almost unknown senator and vice president, suddenly became president when Franklin D. Roosevelt died after serving only 80 days of his fourth term. He quickly adopted his policy: “The buck stops here.” Although he told reporters that “...when they told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like the moon, the stars and all the planets had fallen on me,” Truman rose to meet the challenge of the nation’s top job. Born May 8, 1884 in Lamar, Mo., Truman had been a World War I captain, judge of the Jackson County Court and a U.S. Senator for 10 years when Roosevelt picked him as a running mate. He was forced to make some of the most crucial decisions in the history of the United States. After an urgent plea to Japan to surrender after victory in Europe, Truman ordered atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Five days later, Japan surrendered. Truman was a president who believed that the office belonged to the people and that he was only their caretaker. He usually said what was on his mind, and many people considered him blunt and maybe a little crude because he still played poker with his friends. The president became involved in a controversy with General Douglas MacArthur over the way the Korean War was being handled. He ended that controversy by firing the general, despite opposition from the people and Congress. Truman won election to a full four-year term in 1948, despite predictions by many that Republican Thomas E. Dewey would sweep the nation. The Marshall Plan, which helped to rebuild Europe, was adopted during Truman’s years in the White House. The Truman Doctrine came into being in 1947, when Russian-backed guerrillas tried to take over Greece, and the president had Congress send aid to that country. He had the United States enter the Korean Conflict under the flag of the United Nations when the communist government of North Korea attacked South Korea. However, he managed to keep it a limited struggle. Truman didn’t seek re-election and retired to Independence, Mo., where he died December 26, 1972, at the age of 88.
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15 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
34th President of the United States
1953-1961
General Dwight David Eisenhower, the man who had directed Allied operations in Europe during the Second World War, became this nation’s 34th president January 20, 1953. “I like Ike” became the Republican Party’s cry after they persuaded Eisenhower to run for president. He retired from active military service May 31, 1952, and resigned from the Army July 18 before winning a sweeping victory over Adlai E. Stevenson, the Democrats’ choice. He won by a greater margin over Stevenson in 1956. Eisenhower was born October 14, 1890, in Denison, Texas. He was a graduate of the military academy at West Point and the Army War College. Eisenhower was called to Washington five days after Pearl Harbor to assume staff duties and became supreme commander of Allied Forces June 25, 1942. He was responsible for planning and carrying out the gigantic Normandy invasion. After the war, “Ike” was Army chief of staff and president of Columbia University before president Truman recalled him to military duty to be supreme commander in Europe of NATO forces. Working toward world peace, president Eisenhower met with leaders of Britain, France and Russia at Geneva in 1955, but nothing concrete came from the meeting. Eisenhower was a leader in the creation in 1953 of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The president had a heart attack while visiting Denver, Colo. in 1955, but after seven weeks in the hospital, he was back on the job. Shortly thereafter, he was elected to a second term. The Space Age came into being during the first year of this second term, when Russia launched its first man-made satellite. Alaska and Hawaii became the Union’s 49th and 50th states in 1959, the first new states since 1912. President Eisenhower died March 28, 1969, in Washington, of congestive heart failure at the age of 78. He was buried at Abilene, Kansas.
JOHN F. KENNEDY
35th President of the United States
1961-1963
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the youngest man ever to be elected president, and he was the youngest to die in that office after serving just a little more than 1,000 days. Kennedy was born May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Mass. His education was obtained in London at England’s School of Economics, at Harvard and at Stanford University. He enlisted in the U.S. Navy in 1941 at the start of the Second World War, and commanded a PT boat in the South Pacific. Kennedy was cited for bravery when his boat was rammed and sunk. Kennedy came back from the war to go into politics and became a U.S. representative from the Boston area and later a senator from Massachusetts by defeating Henry Cabot Lodge. While recovering from back surgery in 1955, Kennedy wrote “Profiles in Courage,” which won the Pulitzer Prize in history. In 1956, Kennedy almost won the Democratic nomination for vice president. Four years later, he was a first-ballot nominee for president. He was elected after a highly publicized television debate with the Republican nominee, Richard M. Nixon. During his first months in office, the first of two Cuban crises occurred ó an unsuccessful invasion by Cuban exiles of the homeland in what was to become known as the “Bay of Pigs” invasion, and when air reconnaissance revealed in 1962 that Russia was trying to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. The president ordered a blockade of the island and demanded that Russia remove its missiles and reduce military forces there. Kennedy got the United States into the Space Age with a long-range program of space exploration. Lt. Col. John H. Glenn, Jr., was the first American to orbit the earth. The Peace Corps was established during the Kennedy administration and a nuclear test ban treaty was signed. On November 22, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald stood in a window on the Texas Textbook Depository building and killed president Kennedy as his motorcade wound through Dallas, Texas.
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16 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
LYNDON B. JOHNSON
36th President of the United States
1963-1969
Lyndon Baines Johnson brought a lot of political experience with him to the White House when he became president after John F. Kennedy was assassinated. Johnson was born August 27, 1908, near Stonewall, Texas. He worked his way through Southwest Texas State Teachers College and taught school for a while. His first job in Washington did not come through the election process, but rather through political connections. He was secretary to Representative R.S. Kleberg from 1932 to 1935. He was then appointed Texas State director of the National Youth Administration by President Franklin Roosevelt. Johnson was first elected to Congress in 1937. Johnson enlisted in the Navy December 10, 1941, and was commissioned a lieutenant commander. He was awarded the Silver Star before returning to the House in mid1942, after a ruling that national legislators could not serve in the armed forces. He was elected to the Senate in 1948 and, in 1953, became the youngest minority leader in the Senate’s history. The following year he was to become majority leader when the Democrats regained control of the Senate. Johnson sought the Democratic presidential nomination but lost to Kennedy, who chose him as his running mate. He was an active vice president, serving as chairman of the Committee on Government Contracts and heading the National Aeronautics and Space Council and the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities. During his first days as president, Johnson urged passage of Kennedy-supported measures - a new civil rights bill and a tax cut. Johnson won the presidency in his own right in 1964 with 61 percent of the vote. He immediately started pushing his Great Society programs that included aid to education, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions and a fight against poverty and disease. Vietnam became a thorn in president Johnson’s side. When his efforts to end the war failed, he decided not to seek re-election. He did not live to see peace in Vietnam. He died January 22, 1973, of a heart attack at his Texas ranch where he was buried after lying in state in Washington, D.C.
RICHARD M. NIXON
37th President of the United States
1969-1974
Richard Milhous Nixon, who had been Dwight Eisenhower’s vice president for two terms, made a great political comeback and was sworn in as the nation’s 37th president January 20, 1969. Nixon had been in the public eye for almost 30 years. He was born January 9, 1913, in Yorba Linda, Calif. A graduate of Whittier College, Nixon attended Duke University Law School and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from California in 1946. Nixon gained national attention when, as a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee, he forced a showdown resulting in the Alger Hiss perjury conviction. He was elected to the Senate in 1950 and was vice president in 1952 and 1956. He was nominated by acclamation as the Republican nominee for president in 1960. During the campaign, he went to all 50 states, 26 of which he carried in the election. However, he lost to John F. Kennedy by the closest popular vote margin in presidential election history. Nixon was defeated for the California governorship in 1962, but through his diligent work for the Republican cause, was able to gain the nomination and presidency in 1968 by beating Senator Hubert Humphrey. He completed withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam and won a second term in 1972 after visits to Red China and Russia. Shortly after he began his second term, Nixon was to become tied up with the Watergate investigation that would eventually lead to his resignation as president. Nixon tried to carry on his duties as president, but “things” kept cropping up, including the revelation of taped conversations that would lead the House of Representatives to vote for impeachment indictments against him. However, before the Senate could begin impeachment proceedings, Nixon resigned, and Gerald Ford pardoned Nixon after becoming president. Nixon retired to his home in San Clemente, California, where he stayed secluded for months before making his trip to China at the request of that country’s leaders. Nixon died in 1994.
GERALD R. FORD
38th President of the United States
1974-1977
Gerald R. Ford was a unique president in that he never came to office by the electoral process. Richard Nixon tapped Ford, House minority leader, to be his vice president after the resignation of vice president Spiro Agnew, who was under fire for tax evasion. Ford, a middle-of-the-road Republican, was born July 14, 1914, in Omaha, Nebraska. He graduated from the University of Michigan, where he was selected most valuable player on that school’s football team. Ford, a graduate of Yale Law School, joined the Navy in 1942 and served for four years during the Second World War, coming out in 1946 as a lieutenant commander. He spent 25 years in the House, eight of those years as Republican leader. Ford served on the Warren Commission that investigated the death of president Kennedy. President Nixon picked Ford as his vice president in 1973, and he was sworn into office December 6, 1973, after the Senate and House approved his nomination under the provision of a recently passed constitutional amendment. Ford became president August 9, 1974, when president Nixon resigned in the face of mounting political pressure resulting from the Watergate investigation. Ford had consistently supported Nixon’s policies while in Congress. Shortly after Nixon’s resignation, Ford pardoned him, saying it was time to heal the nation. The new president brought a feeling of openness to the White House. Ford, who had a reputation for honesty and candor, became accessible to writers and photographers alike. He was even photographed while taking a swim. Ford’s popularity grew during his first years in office as he directed a dramatic rescue of the merchant vessel Mayaguez and its 39 crew members and the dramatic Apollo-Soyuz “handshake in space.” In 1976, Ford was defeated by Jimmy Carter, who campaigned on the need for change. Ford died at the age of 93 years and 165 days on December 26, 2006 at at his home in Rancho Mirage, California.
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17 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
JIMMY CARTER
39th President of the United States
1977-1981
As the nation’s 39th president, Jimmy Carter led America into groundbreaking international accords and achieved some domestic policy successes despite staggering economic difficulties. James Earl Carter, Jr., the son of a merchant and farmer in Plains, Georgia, was born in 1924. Carter, who always dreamed of becoming a sailor, graduated from the Naval Academy in 1946. The same year, he married Rosalynn Smith and embarked on seven years of service in the Navy. At 29, Carter returned to Georgia to take over his family’s farm after his father died. Carter expanded the farm and added a cotton gin and peanut-shelling factory to his holdings. The 1954 Supreme Court decision to desegregate the schools and the resulting backlash pushed Carter, a father of four, to run for the county school board. He won a school board seat and later was elected a state senator. Although Carter lost his bid for governor in 1966, he was elected in 1970. In 1976, Carter became president of the United States, with Walter Mondale serving as his vice president. Carter, perceived as a Washington outsider by the American public, defeated president Gerald R. Ford. Carter forged important international bonds. In the Camp David accord of 1979, he helped Israel and Egypt look past ancient disputes to form peaceful ties. America began a new relationship with Panama by turning the U.S. canal in that country over to Panamanian control. Carter tried to limit the Soviet threat by signing the SALT II treaty, which reduced the two countries’ nuclear weapons, but the treaty was not ratified by the Senate. Carter’s domestic agenda achieved some successes as well. He created a national energy policy, introduced civil service reform, deregulated the trucking and airline industries, expanded the national park system in Alaska and created the Department of Education. Carter’s administration suffered from the failed attempt to rescue American hostages in Iran and from “stagflation,” a stagnant economy accompanied by high inflation. In 1980, Carter lost the presidency to Ronald Reagan in a landslide defeat. Although Carter returned to farming in Georgia, he continues to be active in projects such as low-income housing development.
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President Ronald Reagan, who created the “Reagan Revolution,” aimed to strengthen the American economy, build up U.S. military defense and reduce Americans’ reliance on government. On February 11, 1911, Ronald Wilson Reagan was born in Tampico, Illinois. He attended high school in Dixon and went on to Eureka College, where he studied economics and sociology. At college, Reagan played football and acted in school plays. After graduating from Eureka, Reagan worked as a radio sports announcer until he landed a Hollywood acting contract in 1937. Over the next two decades, Reagan appeared in 53 films. Reagan married Jane Wyman, with whom he had two children, but they later divorced. In 1952, he married Nancy Davis and had two more children. Reagan took a strong stance against communism in his position as president of the Screen Actors Guild. As a television host, he began touring the country and became a spokesman for American conservatism. In 1966, he was elected governor of California and was re-elected in 1970. When Reagan decided to run for the Republican presidential nomination in 1980, he chose George Bush as his running mate. Reagan won the election in a landslide victory over Jimmy Carter. After 69 days in office, Reagan was shot and wounded outside a Washington hotel by John Hinckley. During his two terms, Reagan pushed through a Democratic Congress his program for stimulating economic growth, cutting taxes, curbing government expenditures and increasing government spending. Defense spending was increased by 35 percent. Reagan funded anti-communists in Central America, Asia and Africa. In 1987, his administration’s efforts to trade arms for hostages in Iran became the subject of an extensive investigation. Reagan left office in 1988 as a popular president, but his legacy was marred by the budget deficits and savings-and-loan industry scandal that occurred during his administration. In June 2004, Ronald Reagan died peacefully at his home in California.
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18 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
GEORGE BUSH
41st President of the United States
1989-1993
George Bush’s campaign slogans to build a “kinder and gentler nation” and to allow “no new taxes” ushered the vice president into the White House in 1988. George Herbert Walker Bush was born in Milton, Massachusetts June 12, 1924. After graduating from Phillips Academy in Andover, Bush enlisted in the armed forces on his 18th birthday. Bush became a seaman second-class and eventually was the youngest Navy pilot to receive wings. During the Second World War, he flew 58 combat missions and received the Distinguished Flying Cross for his bravery after being shot down at sea. In 1945, Bush married Barbara Pierce and began what would become a family of six. It was also in 1945 that Bush entered Yale University where he studied economics. After graduating from Yale, Bush began a career in the west Texas oil industry. Bush also decided to run for congressional office. His father had been a senator from Connecticut, and Bush became a representative from Texas. He served two terms in the House before he was appointed to several high-level Republican and federal posts, including director of the Central Intelligence Agency. After Bush lost a bid for the Republican presidential nomination in 1980, he accepted Ronald Reagan’s invitation to serve as vice president. He served for eight years. In 1988, he was elected president. In 1990, he agreed to a tax increase, contradicting his famous “read my lips ó no new taxes” creed. Bush oversaw allied military success in the Persian Gulf War in 1991, freeing Kuwait from Iraqi control. Bush presided over the downfall of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and negotiated deep arms cuts with Russian leader Boris Yeltsin. But an economic recession cut deeply into Bush’s popularity as he faced a re-election challenge by Democrat Bill Clinton, who defeated Bush in 1992.
WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON
42nd President of the United States
1993-2001
William Jefferson Clinton was born in Hope, Ark., Aug. 19, 1946. He received a bachelor’s degree from the Georgetown School of Foreign Service in 1968 and studied as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University from 1968-70. He obtained his law degree from Yale University in 1973. Unsuccessful in a bid for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1974, he was elected attorney general of Arkansas in 1976. Clinton became the nation’s youngest governor in 40 years when, at 32, he took office in Arkansas in 1978. He succeeded Democrat David Pryor, who was elected to the U.S. Senate that year. After losing to Frank White in 1980, he bounced back in 1982 to become the first defeated Arkansas chief executive to ever regain the governor’s office. Clinton was re-elected in 1984 and again in 1986, when the term was extended for four years. Despite the urging of his advisers to retire as governor and spend the next two years preparing to run for president, Clinton ran again in 1990 and won. Clinton, who was named chairman of the Democratic Leadership Council in 1990, resigned that position in August 1991, when it became clear he was running for president. Campaigning on “a need for change,” Clinton won the presidency in 1992. He won it again in 1996. In 1999, President Clinton became the first president since Andrew Johnson to be impeached. He was impeached for not telling the truth during grand jury testimony. He was not convicted. During his time as President, Clinton served over the longest period of economic growth in the United States’ history.
Barbara Bush
With her previous experience as wife of the Vice President, Barbara Bush was prepared to campaign to combat illiteracy in America immediately following the Inauguration. She also brought attention to homeless families by visiting “Martha’s Table” which provided meals for poor families and activities for homeless children. On her many visits to homeless shelters, she also increased awareness of single mothers, often teenagers, who received no support from the fathers. When asked to speak at Wellesley College, female students were initially critical that she defined herself through her marriage and not as an individual. However, the speech was a well-received commentary on the changing world and a woman’s role in that world.
Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton, in the first few days of being First Lady, was named to the President’s Task Force on Health Care Reform where she oversaw research, made investigatory trips, sat on numerous committees, and testified before Congress. The health care plan ultimately failed and she took a less open political role. She took great pride in the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. She also started the Save America’s Treasures program to protect historic items and sites including the flag that inspired the Star Spangled Banner and the National First Ladies Historic Site. In 1999, she successfully ran for the U.S. Senate seat of New York, becoming the first First Lady ever elected to public office.
19 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
GEORGE W. BUSH
43rd President of the United States
2001-2008
George W. Bush is the 43rd President of the United States, and the second President in history whose father was also President. He was sworn into office January 20, 2001, after a campaign in which he outlined sweeping proposals to reform America’s public schools, transform the national defense, provide tax relief, modernize Social Security and Medicare, and encourage faith-based and community organizations to work with government to help Americans in need. President Bush was born on July 6, 1946, in New Haven, Connecticut, and he grew up in Midland and Houston, Texas. He received a bachelor’s degree from Yale University in 1968, then served as an F-102 fighter pilot in the Texas Air National Guard. President Bush rking on his father’s successful 1988 presidential campaign, he assembled the group of partners that purchased the Texas Rangers baseball franchise in 1989. He served as managing general partner of the Texas Rangers until he was elected Governor on November 8, 1994, with 53.5 percent of the vote. He became the first Governor in Texas history to be elected to consecutive four-year terms when he was re-elected on November 3, 1998, with 68.6 percent of the vote. Since taking office, President Bush has signed into law initiatives to improve public schools by raising standards, requiring accountability, and strengthening local control. He has signed tax relief that provided rebate checks and lower tax rates for everyone who pays income taxes in America. He has increased pay and benefits for America’s military. The attacks of September 11th, 2001 changed America - and in President Bush’s words, “in our grief and anger we have found our mission and our moment.” President Bush declared war against terror and has made victory in the war on terrorism and the advance of human freedom the priorities of his Administration. In March of 2003, Bush sent American troops into Iraq to liberate the country from the rule of Saddam Hussein. He was re-elected to a second term in November 2004. President Bush is married to Laura Welch Bush, a former teacher and librarian, and they have twin daughters, Barbara and Jenna.
BARACK H. OBAMA
44th President of the United States
2009 His story is the American story — values from the heartland, a middle-class upbringing in a strong family, hard work and education as the means of getting ahead, and the conviction that a life so blessed should be lived in service to others. With a father from Kenya and a mother from Kansas, President Obama was born in Hawaii on August 4, 1961. He was raised with help from his grandfather, who served in Patton’s army, and his grandmother, who worked her way up from the secretarial pool to middle management at a bank. After working his way through college with the help of scholarships and student loans, President Obama moved to Chicago, where he worked with a group of churches to help rebuild communities devastated by the closure of local steel plants. He went on to attend law school, where he became the first African—American president of the Harvard Law Review. Upon graduation, he returned to Chicago to help lead a voter registration drive, teach constitutional law at the University of Chicago, and remain active in his community. President Obama’s years of public service are based around his unwavering belief in the ability to unite people around a politics of purpose. In the Illinois State Senate, he passed the first major ethics reform in 25 years, cut taxes for working families, and expanded health care for children and their parents. As a United States Senator, he reached across the aisle to pass groundbreaking lobbying reform, lock up the world’s most dangerous weapons, and bring transparency to government by putting federal spending online. He was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008, and sworn in on January 20, 2009. He and his wife, Michelle, are the proud parents of two daughters, Malia, 10, and Sasha, 7. Content courtesy of www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/
Michelle Obama
With two young children, Michelle Obama made her family a priority when she became first lady. Michelle worked diligently to be acquainted with everyone in the executive branches and gave a sense of connection to thousands of civil service federal employees. She declared helping working mothers, supporting American military families, and encouraging volunteerism to be areas where she will focus her interest. In 2010, she launched the Let’s Move! campaign to encourage children to participate in physical activities and to fight childhood obesity, with the goal to eliminate childhood obesity within a generation.
20 | February 12, 2014 | United States Presidents |Dillon Tribune
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